IF Components – Part 1
CURRICULUM, pedagogical, teaching and learning frameworks – terminologies that help us motivate our students to learn well, with enthusiasm and fun. What these terminologies have in common is that they help us pursue our end goal as teachers – to prepare well for content and practice, but they vary in focus.
Curricular framework. When developing an academic program such as for a master’s degree, a program framework serves as a guide. It is an organized plan comprising “a set of interlocking elements, including essential learning experiences, generic skills, values, attitudes and key learning areas” (http://www. .igntu.ac.in › eContent). Thus, a master’s program that could total 36 to 42 units would be composed of a set of 6 to 9 units of core subjects, a set of 18 or more units of major subjects (and a set of for one or more minors if it is a doctorate). There would also be electives – one or two three units as cognates (subjects that would broaden/enrich a student’s knowledge of their major) and/or free electives (subjects not necessarily related to the academic program of a student). For a free choice, a subject of three units in music or sports, etc. could be followed by a student in relation to his personal interests. The master’s thesis is credited with 6 credits. In composing a program, we are also guided by the requirements of our institution (if sectarian, would have subjects in theology, philosophy for a bachelor’s degree) and regulatory bodies such as the Commission on Higher Education (CHEd), the Ministry of Education (DepEd) and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (Tesda).
Special foreign language program (SPFL). When composing a program, there could be compulsory/recommended subjects which later on are no longer as such. It is up to the establishment to select or keep the said subjects according to their feasibility and their link with the institutional objectives. In 2015, the DepEd issued DO 5 to heads of regional, divisional and public secondary schools specifying the elements and sources of funding for the participation of teachers in local training for the current and future special program in foreign language ( SPFL) to upgrade foreign language (FL) pedagogy. skills as of 2015. (http://www.deped.gov.ph/orders/do-5-s-2015). When the K to 12 was implemented, not all schools continued to offer the DepEd’s SPFL, except for some schools which continued to offer German. language including three schools known as PASCH (School, Partner for the Future), a program supported by the Federal Republic of Germany. Recently, before the May 2022 elections, it became known that the SPFL was being considered for reimplementation. With the recent announcement of having a new DepEd secretary, we have to wait for the new administration to settle in and deal with whether or not to reinstate the SPFL in secondary education.
Pedagogical framework. Teaching and learning framework or lesson planning framework, is another term for an instructional framework. It consists of “a set of research-based course design templates that help instructors align learning objectives with classroom activities, create engaging and inclusive environments, and integrate assessment into learning. “. (https://poorvucenter.yale.edu/BackwardDesign) It provides a cohesive structure made up of proven components, adaptable to work with different teaching styles, content areas, and student needs (while maintaining the basic structure of the framework Framework 101: what is it and why each school?” – https://learningfocused.com/instructional-framework-101/). It presents models, strategies, methods and skills that teachers can implement during their lessons. Teachers can choose the model or a combination of models for a specific subject to be taught. Following this, the teacher chooses the “most effective instructional strategies and practices to ensure that all of his or her students learn effectively and successfully.” Depending on their experience, teachers could choose strategies that would motivate students to “actively engage in meaningful, relevant, and challenging work.” Such a framework is adaptable to the teaching of various subjects whether in the field of arts, humanities, pure and applied sciences or social sciences. The framework presents several choices starting with which model(s) a teacher would choose as the overall context for the strategies, methods, and skills of the instructional plan.
Components of the pedagogical framework. Imagine the frame as four circular loops thinning the loops tightly to all connect like a tail. The first loop contains the models, the second loop — the strategies, the third loop — the methods and the fourth loop — the teaching skills. The four models in the first loop are information processing, relational, social interaction, and the personal model that a teacher can choose from as a context to anchor the teaching and learning plan. Each model represents “the broadest level of pedagogical practices and presents a philosophical orientation to teaching”. A model influences “teaching strategies, methods, skills, and student activities for a particular instructional focus.” (Joyce and Weil, 1986) Related to the models, five types of strategies are presented in the second loop. A teacher could choose a strategy to use that relates to the model they have chosen. These strategies are — direct, indirect, interactive, experiential, and independent. The third loop shows the types of methods, several associated with specific strategies although there are methods that would work well with more than one strategy. These methods are – focused imagery, debate, learning contracts, cooperative learning, case studies, inquiry, simulations or the very popular lecture. After choosing the model, strategy(ies) and method(s), the teacher chooses in the last loop the pedagogical skills representing the specific behaviors needed. These skills are questioning, discussing, giving instructions, explaining and demonstrating. They also “include actions such as planning, structuring, focusing and managing” – used for “procedural purposes and to structure appropriate learning experiences for students”. (https://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/cte492/Modules/M3/Methods-Strategies.htm) Visit this link for the loop and details on strategies, methods and skills.
Teresita Tanhueco-Tumapon, PhD, one of the Philippines’ most accomplished educators and experts in the management of higher education institutions, studied at top universities in the Philippines and in Germany, Britain and Japan. She has held senior academic positions at Xavier University, Ateneo de Cagayan; was appointed by the president after the 1986 EDSA to standardize campus operations at state institutions and served 17 years later as president of SUC. She is the director of the internationalization office and a lecturer at Liceo University in Cagayan. Awards include the CHEd Lifetime Professional Achievement Award, the British Council Valuable Services Recognition Award, the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, and the Ministry of Education Award for his initiatives as a pioneer member of the Philippine Teacher Education Council.
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