September 21, 2022

Teaching skills | The Manila Times

THE pedagogical framework begins with the broadest phase — the pedagogical models. Four popular models are information processing, relationships, social interaction, and personal models. Last week’s example of a training plan employed the information processing model using an indirect training strategy. Subsequently, various methods complementary to the indirect instruction strategy were briefly described. A teacher can choose from these methods – problem solving, case studies, meaning reading, inquiry, reflective discussion, writing to inform, concept formation, concept mapping, concept realization, and cloze procedure. Pedagogical methods require pedagogical skills, pedagogical behaviors that we will describe below.

Teaching skills and processes. Given the model, strategies and methods we have chosen to employ, we then structure appropriate learning experiences using various “teaching skills/behaviours”. These are the most specific components of the pedagogical framework. These are complex and broader, while some are more specific and distinct from others. These skills are planning, structuring, focusing, managing issues, discussing, guiding, explaining and demonstrating. ( › cte492 › Modules) These are needed “for procedural purposes and to structure appropriate learning experiences for students” and are “an important part of the total process of ‘education”. Despite our many years of teaching experience, developing and refining our teaching skills remains a challenge. The choice of teaching skills to be used must take into account factors such as “the characteristics of the student, the requirements of the program and the methods of teaching”. (“Chapter 2: Pedagogical models, strategies, methods and skills”) ( › cte492 › Modules)

Explain and demonstrate. Explaining, an important part of teaching and learning, is a skill we often use in a classroom. The explanation is better understood by the pupils if it is followed by a demonstration. This helps students deepen their understanding of a concept or generalization. To introduce a concept, we teachers would start with definitions of terminologies understood by students. Diverted definitions and the use of vocabulary beyond the students’ grade level will not help students understand the lesson. Our explanation must select examples and non-examples in the students’ experience. Even in higher education, explanations must lie within the sphere of experience of the students. For example, a leadership lesson: “Allowing compromise will breed conflict. A new staff member, formerly OCW, had a 10 hour time difference between where he was previously and the Philippines. During his first week, the manager failed to orient this new staff to the rules of the office. This leader has chosen to make compromises, understanding that new staff must adapt over time. However, for nearly a month, the new staff member doesn’t wake up from his midday nap until 2:30 p.m. The conflict begins in the office; other employees feel like their manager is playing favorites. What the manager should do in the first week to avoid conflict is not to compromise, but to hold a meeting to welcome new staff and orient them on office rules that afternoon work begins at 2 p.m.; that as a new member, he has two weeks to adapt in time. Indeed, making compromises breeds conflict. Explaining can also show “cause and effect”. A demonstration to show the effect of adding an acid to a base will help to better understand the explanation. /law as in grammar – when to capitalize a noun, or (2) the intent of an activity/process such as showing students in a literature class the use of foreshadowing in drama. (

Questioning — techniques and advantages. Questioning, a major feature of every class session, can best start a session by asking questions as a way to open up a conversation with students. Ask in a health class “Why are we starting to have more people willing to get vaccinated?” Let’s not limit the questions to “what”. since “what” simply calls for a statement of facts. The “how” and “why” questions lead students to think deeply, to analyze what they know, to deepen their understanding of a concept or phenomenon; example — “Why don’t some people want to get vaccinated?” » To achieve learning outcomes, plan carefully and formulate specific questions to the class. Properly sequence the questions making up a series “to coincide with the development of the objective”. Allow a “wait time” for these questions, enough time for the student to answer individual questions, especially to describe procedures or process. “Waiting time” is also necessary when students are not native speakers (like our students) of the language of instruction such as English. Distribute the questions widely among class members to encourage a high degree of student participation. Account for individual student differences by having a mix of high and low cognition questions requiring identification, analysis, synthesis, or evaluation. Vary the questions widely to enhance students’ critical thinking and nurture creativity. Address questions to the whole class before calling out to a specific student. Also give those who don’t raise their hands a chance. Encourage students to address the whole class when responding. Be sensitive to each student’s desire to speak publicly – avoid embarrassing a student. “Ask the class a question, allow time for reflection, then call on a student” – a simple strategy for engaging students in active academic discourse.

Types of questions. Two types of questioning skills are closed and open questions. A closed type such as “Which department is served by the new Philippine vice president?” “How many years have we been the colony of Spain?” are questions of identification and limited to facts. They do not promote deep thinking. Open-ended questions encourage students to give longer answers – they ponder, ponder and reveal their feelings about the question. An example is “What do you think caused Robredo not to win the last election?” Let’s try to improve our questioning skills for our students to maximize their learning. (“What is effective questioning and why is it useful?” (https://www.highspeed

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Teresita Tanhueco-Tumapon, PhD, one of the Philippines’ most accomplished educators and experts in the management of higher education institutions, studied at top universities in the Philippines and in Germany, Britain and Japan. She has held senior academic positions at Xavier University, Ateneo de Cagayan; was appointed by the president after the 1986 EDSA to standardize campus operations at state institutions and served 17 years later as president of SUC. She is the director of the internationalization office and a lecturer at Liceo University in Cagayan. Awards include the CHEd Lifetime Professional Achievement Award, the British Council Valuable Services Recognition Award, the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, and the Ministry of Education Award for his initiatives as a pioneer member of the Philippine Teacher Education Council.

E-mail: [email protected]