August 3, 2022

Curriculum Framework Models | The Manila Times

The pedagogical framework – Part 2

EARLIER we had an overview of the pedagogical framework. It presents pedagogical models that anchor the teaching process. The models present a philosophical orientation to the teaching. They guide teachers in choosing and structuring “strategies, methods, skills and [learner] activities for particular instructional emphasis.” Joyce and Weil (1986) identified four models: information processing, behavioral, social interaction, and personal (Google, November 28, 2013). After choosing a model, we teachers, select a strategy or combination of strategies in our lesson planning and appropriate teaching methods, and finally, given the methods, we use appropriate teaching skills.

Information processing model. One of the four instructional models is the information processing model. This model compares the processing of information in our minds to the functioning of a computer. We collect information; afterwards, we organize and store the information and later, if necessary, we retrieve it. While this description of the information processing model oversimplifies how we humans learn, this comparison of the human mind to a computer gives a straightforward description of how we humans assimilate knowledge. In addition to being computers, we help our learners to acquire knowledge from our courses, not only to “convey the knowledge of our subjects in their minds”, but rather to “ensure that it is encoded in their memory long-term”. (Google, August 6, 2019) Designed primarily to develop inductive reasoning – to increase general intellectual development, especially logical reasoning, this model is also applied to social and moral development (see Kohlberg). This model helps to “increase the efficiency of information processing capabilities to meaningfully absorb and connect sets of knowledge”. ( 073965)

Model of social interaction. Another model is the social interaction model focusing on a concept of us, the people, being “society-oriented towards the development of interpersonal relationships”. A priority vision of human nature is social relations and the creation of a better society. Accordingly, this model offers learning activities to develop personal awareness and interpersonal and group skills. The aim is to “develop learners’ skills for participation in the democratic social process with emphasis on interpersonal (group) social skills and academic research”. Consistent with this goal, the social interaction model provides lessons in solving social problems primarily through logical reasoning. Using this template prompts the teacher to begin discussion on an assigned topic, whether it is a project or suggesting what to do with a social issue. Such activities enable learners to “ask questions, reflect, reconsider, seek help and support, and lead a group discussion effectively”. Although usually done face-to-face, modern technologies can make effective cooperative learning possible through virtual interactive discussions. Briefly, teaching using the social interaction model begins with an introduction by the instructor, after which learners break into groups. The instructor “continues to follow and evaluate the teams and their work. Finally, the teams conclude with their conclusions. ( › 2013/04 › on-model…)

Personal model. The non-directive approach in teaching is appropriate for this model. It is inspired by the work of Carl Rogers who believes “that positive human relationships enable people to grow”; therefore, “instruction must be based on concepts of human relations”. The personal model focuses on the individual as a source of educational ideas. The objectives of this model are personal development and the processes by which the individual constructs and organizes his reality. In line with these goals, this model emphasizes “the personal psychology and emotional life of the individual”. Expected outcomes are those “held in high regard by humanistic educators: elevated self-concept and self-esteem; positive self-direction and independence; creativity and curiosity; and development of affect and emotions” . Most of the methods used are “associated with open education”. “Although this model has not been shown to impact outcomes associated with traditional education, it shows promise for impacting other outcomes important to the information age.” ( By adapting this mode, the teacher initiates opportunities for learners to “explore new ideas” and gives learners the “freedom to make decisions and choices”. “Teachers and [learners] are partners in learning, (learners) are encouraged to be as they are and are encouraged to think and reflect their uncertain feelings and become better and positive.” (

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Behavioral modification model. This model “attempts to create effective systems for sequencing learning activities and shaping behavior by employing reinforcers”. ( The model is inspired by BF Skinner’s operant conditioning. It attempts to change patterns of human behavior that are “wrongful, problematic, or unpleasant behaviors into more positive and desirable behaviors.” (“What is behavior modification? Psychology, definition”) ( › advice › what-is-behaviour). It employs methods “associated with observable skills and behaviors” that “have generally been shown to be more likely to positively impact scores on standardized tests of basic skills than models in other categories”. ( p=430 3991) This model is about the processes that shape behavior – how behavior can be changed in everyday contexts and situations. (“Models and Strategies of Behavior Change | Eufic” – 01 July 2014″) ( Using this model takes into consideration or individual beliefs, knowledge, attitudes, skills, genetics” as well as “environmental factors. economy (cost of living) and technology.” (

Take away food. There are other pedagogical models in the literature, but those described above are the most popular. As pedagogical models, they anchor the “structure of teaching strategies, methods…activities” and pedagogical skills “that meet specific pedagogical goals and objectives”. Clearly, these models are “one of the most important elements of the learning process that provides direction for the achievement of educational goals”. (Google, March 19, 2022)

Teresita Tanhueco-Tumapon, PhD, one of the Philippines’ most accomplished educators and experts in the management of higher education institutions, studied at top universities in the Philippines and in Germany, Britain and Japan. She has held senior academic positions at Xavier University, Ateneo de Cagayan; was appointed by the president after EDSA 1986 to standardize campus operations at state institutions and served 17 years later as president of SUC. She is the director of the internationalization office and a lecturer at Liceo University in Cagayan. Awards include the CHEd Lifetime Professional Achievement Award, the British Council Valuable Services Recognition Award, the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, and the Ministry of Education Award for his initiatives as a pioneer member of the Philippine Teacher Education Council.

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