June 22, 2022

Comparison of the BOPPPS model and traditional pedagogical approaches in teaching thoracic surgery | BMC medical training


The study was conducted among 88 students from Shandong First Medical University and Shandong University Clinical Medicine, who performed thoracic surgery from January 2018 to December 2019. In 2018, 44 interns in the control group adopted the traditional teaching method. In addition, in 2019, 44 trainees from the experimental group adopted the BOPPPS model. There were 21 women and 23 men in the control group, with an average age of 22.4 years. The experimental group consisted of 20 men and 24 women, with an average age of 22.5 years. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of gender, age, entrance success, family background and self-study ability (p > 0.05). All participants signed informed consent and the ethics committee of Jinan Central Hospital approved this study.


Both groups of students used the same chapter “lung cancer” as teaching content. All teaching processes were completed at the same time in both the experimental group and the control group. For the teaching cases, a patient with lung cancer was selected from the patients hospitalized in the thoracic surgery department. The teacher communicated with the patients in advance and obtained their consent, and then the teacher edited the patient’s medical information in one case. The specific teaching methods are as follows.

The control group was primarily taught in the traditional teaching model. The teacher first explained the relevant theoretical knowledge of the chosen disease according to the specific requirements of the program. Afterwards, the students discussed and answered clinical questions based on the cases provided by the teacher. Finally, the teacher summarized the course content according to the requirements of the syllabus.

The experimental group used the BOPPPS model to carry out the teaching. A week before the course, the instructor informed the students about the theoretical chapters and related issues. The BOPPPS model has been divided into six stages. Bridge in: According to the teaching content, the teacher related the content to be learned to the essential points of knowledge such as anatomy, pathophysiology and diagnosis, which led to the focus and application value of the study from the simple to the profound. Learning objective: According to the syllabus, the teacher defined the learning objectives and pointed out the key points and the difficulties of the teaching. Pre-test: By teaching primarily by asking heuristic questions, the clinical teacher could assess the level of knowledge of the students, which helped to adjust the teaching emphasis in subsequent teaching. Participatory learning: At first, the students were divided into groups and selected classic cases according to the educational content of the discussion. Then, a representative from each group was chosen to answer the questions posed by the cases. Finally, the teacher comments on the results of the answers of each group and explains the important and difficult points of the cases. Students can consult textbooks and literature, exchange collected information and have group discussions. They can also analyze and summarize the issues raised and complement each other to deepen the impression. Post test: The teachers took the difficult theoretical knowledge from the lung cancer chapter as the key content of the post-test questions. Through the post-test to master the effect of student learning on the teaching content, teachers can adjust the difficulty of the teaching plan and improve the teaching plan. Summary:Teachers used the flowchart to guide students to summarize the content of this lecture, reinforce key and difficult points, and expand the teaching content. Using the chapter on lung cancer in this course as an example, the design of a class is shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1

Sample class design for the BOPPPS model

Effectiveness evaluation

At the end of the course, the effectiveness and satisfaction of the two teaching methods were evaluated by an exam and an anonymous questionnaire.

Theoretical knowledge is in the form of a written exam (a total score of 100 points). The exam questions are randomly selected from the exam question bank, which mainly assesses students’ knowledge of lung cancer theory.

Both groups of students participated in the questionnaire survey. Eighty-eight questionnaires were sent and eighty-eight were actually received with an effective collection rate of 100%. The content of the questionnaire mainly includes lesson satisfaction (I am satisfied with the lesson design and the way the teachers teach it), student-teacher interaction (I agree with the teacher- student presented in this course), learning initiative (I feel I can take the initiative to learn in this course), analytical ability (I think my ability to analyze problems can be improved through this course), clinical thinking ability (I think my clinical thinking ability improved significantly after the course), and self-learning ability (my ability to acquire knowledge independently through this course was improved). (The five-level Likert rating method is used as the evaluation standard, and 1-5 points means completely dissatisfied ~ completely satisfied).

statistical analyzes

All statistical analyzes were performed using SPSS version 26.0 software and Microsoft Office. Measurement data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (x ± s). Significance was assessed from an independent sample you-test. Statistical significance was set at p